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Tropical Cyclone Research and Review  
  Tropical Cyclone Research and Review--2013, 2 (1)   Published: 2013-02-15
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Rapid Intensification Near Landfall of Typhoon Vicente (2012)

Zifeng Yu, Dan Wu, Hui Yu
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2013, 2 (1): 1;  doi: 10.6057/2013TCRR01.01
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Typhoon Vicente (2012) underwent rapid intensification (RI) within 24 h before landfall in Mainland China. Analysis of the large-scale environment and characteristics of Vicente identifies the aforementioned intensification as classic RI. The process occurred in an environmental flow with a deep-layer shear ranging from 5 m s-1 to 8 m s-1. Convection caused by persistent vertical shear forcing of the vortex was observed primarily in the downshear left quadrant of the storm. However, radar and satellite observations indicate that the northern convection of the inner core of Vicente quickly developed in the down-shear right three hours near landfall.

Advances in Understanding and Forecasting Rapidly Changing Phenomena in Tropical Cyclones

Russell L. Elsberry, Lianshou Chen, Jim Davidson, Robert Rogers, Yuqing Wang
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2013, 2 (1): 13;  doi: 10.6057/2013TCRR01.02
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This review of new understanding and forecasting of tropical cyclones (TCs) is based on presentations at the International Top-level Forum on Rapid Change Phenomena in Tropical Cyclones in Haikou, China. The major topics are the sudden changes in tracks, rapid changes in structure and intensity, rapid changes in rainfall, and advances in forecasting and forecaster requirements. Although improved track forecast guidance has been achieved with the Australian ACCESS-TC model and in track forecasts to 120 h by the China Meteorological Administration, there is a continuing need for better understanding and improved track forecast guidance. Advances in understanding of processes related to rapid intensification (RI), secondary eyewall formation, mechanisms controlling inner-core structure and size changes, and structure and intensity changes at landfall have been achieved, but progress in prediction of rapid changes in structure and intensity has been slow. Taking into account complex interactions involved in TC-related rainfall, a prioritized list of physical processes that govern rainfall from landfalling TCs in China has been developed. While forecaster participants were generally encouraged by the progress being made, they expressed a strong desire for a transition of that new knowledge to timely and reliable forecast guidance products.

Intensity Identification of Typhoon Haikui (1211) During the Landing Stage

Jie Tang and Dan Wu
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2013, 2 (1): 25;  doi: 10.6057/2013TCRR01.03
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In daily typhoon operation, identifying the intensity of typhoons is always a contentious problem, which can be attributed to the absence of direct observational data when typhoons are present on the ocean. When typhoons move to the offshore region, where many automatic weather stations (AWSs) are present, utilizing automatic observations in non-standard conditions is a good way of identifying the intensity or wind of a typhoon. Before identification, AWS data should be conversed or revised based on statistical experiences from a multilayer wind tower.
In this study, the intensity of Haikui (1211) at the landing stage (from 08071200 UTC to 08071920 UTC) is revised carefully. Calculating the wind conversion coefficient between different heights from a 300m multilayer tower observation, the wind data caught by two offshore AWSs were converted to the standard wind of 10 meters and used to identify the intensity of the landing Haikui. The maximum surface wind of Haikui in the landing period was about 45 m/s to 48 m/s and then reduced to 40 m/s to 42 m/s approximately just before landing.
On the basis of the discussion in this study, the AWS data in a non-standard environment can be utilized to determine the surface wind at 10 m height by arithmetic conversion. This implies that we should pay more attention and patient to the wind data observed in offshore island AWSs during typhoon identification.

On tropical Cyclone Activity Over the Western North Pacific in 2012

Ruifen Zhan, Ming Ying, Peiyan Chen
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2013, 2 (1): 35;  doi: 10.6057/2013TCRR01.04
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Tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) in 2012 is summarized and the associated large-scale environmental conditions are discussed. In total 25 named storms formed in the WNP basin in 2012, among them were 3 tropical storms (TSs), 7 severe TSs, 4 typhoons, 6 severe typhoons, and 5 super typhoons. TC activity was close to a 30-year average but above the average active level of recent years since 2005. Total number of TCs formed in the South China Sea (SCS) in 2012 was below normal, with only 40% of the climatological mean. Overall, TC genesis over the WNP was characterized by four active periods. During each period TCs took distinct prevailing tracks. The periodic characteristics in TC genesis were attributed to the activity of the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO), while those in TC tracks were related to the large-scale dynamical and thermodynamic conditions induced by the enhanced WNP monsoon activity and the weak El Niño conditions.

Comparison of the Hydro-climatological Characteristics for the Extra-ordinary Flood Induced by Tropical Cyclone in the Selected River Basins

Dongryul Lee, Byunghwa Oh, Hwirin Kim, Sangheon Lee, Gunhui Chung
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2013, 2 (1): 45;  doi: 10.6057/2013TCRR01.05
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As the increased interesting on global warming and extreme water-related disasters, there are many countries which have been suffering from the extreme floods induced by tropical cyclones in East Asia. Therefore, in this study, the geographical and hydrometeolorogical characteristics and flood forecasting and warning systems in the selected basins from Thailand, Philippines, and South Korea are compared. Chao Phraya river basin, Pampanga river basin and Nakdong river basin are selected from Thailand, Philippines, and South Korea, respectively. As the results from the comparison, it was discovered that the different geographical and hydrometeolorogical characteristics delivers the different types of flood forecasting and warning systems in each basin. Due to the different geographical characteristics, the damage caused by the similar amount of monthly rainfall is different according to the historical records. This difference is expected to be caused by the different river regime coefficient and soil structures. The flood forecasting and warning systems in three basins are also different. South Korea has the centralized control system for the flood forecasting and warning, while the other basins have the more localized monitoring, forecasting, and warning procedures. In addition to the flood forecasting and warning system, according to the geographical characteristics, the density of the gauging stations is also different. The analyzed results might help the policy makers in the basins develop the adaptive flood forecasting and warning system considering the basin characteristics. In the further study, more investigation has to be done for the quantified results from the three basins.

Activities of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee Regarding Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Using Non-structural Measures, Based on Japanese SABO Technology

Shin-ichiro Hayashi, Hideaki Mizuno, Atsushi Okamoto, Masaki Hiruma, Reiji Kondo
Tropical Cyclone Research and Review. 2013, 2 (1): 55;  doi: 10.6057/2013TCRR01.06
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In the project activities of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee (TC), the National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management (NILI M), the SAB (Erosion and Sediment Control) Department of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), and the SABO and Landslide Technical Center (STC) implemented two projects: “Sediment-related Disaster Forecasting Warning System Project” (2002–2008) and “Project on Hazard Mapping for Sediment-related Disasters” (2009–2012). The aim of these projects was to distribute Japanese SABO technology, particularly non-structural measures, among TC members. This report presents the concepts and methods related to non-structural measures for sediment-related disaster prevention based on Japanese SA BO technology, the contents of the two projects’ activities, the preparation of early warning information, the creation of a hazard map, and the preparation of an integrated system for resident evacuation.

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